TEAMS
Former teams
RALEIGH-DURHAM
SKYHAWKS
(RALEIGH, NC)
(1991)
STADIUM

(CARTER-FINLEY STADIUM)
(1991)
BIRMINGHAM
FIRE
(BIRMINGHAM, AL)
(1991-1992)
STADIUM

(LEGION FIELD)
(1991-1992)
MONTREAL
MACHINE
(MONTREAL, CANADA)
(1991-1992)
STADIUM

(OLYMPIC STADIUM)
(1991-1992)
NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY
KNIGHTS
(EAST RUTHERFORD, NJ)
(1991-1992)
STADIUM

(GIANTS STADIUM)
(1991-1992)
OHIO
GLORY
(COLUMBUS, OH)
(1992)
STADIUM

(OHIO STADIUM)
(1992)
ORLANDO
THUNDER
(ORLANDO, FL)
(1991-1992)
STADIUM

(CITRUS BOWL)
(1991-1992)
SACRAMENTO
SURGE
(SACRAMENTO, CA)
(1991-1992)
STADIUM

(HORNET STADIUM)
(1992)
SAN ANTONIO
RIDERS
(SAN MARCOS, TX)
(1991-1992)
STADIUM

(BOBCAT STADIUM)
(1992)
LONDON
MONARCHS
(CHELSEA, LONDON, ENGLAND)
(1991-1992/1995-1997)
STADIUM

(STAMFORD BRIDGE)
(1997)
ENGLAND
MONARCHS
(VARIOUS STADIUMS)
(1998)
STADIUMS

(ALEXANDER STADIUM)
(BIRMINGHAM,W.MIDLANDS)
(1998)
(ASHTON GATE STADIUM)
(BRISTOL)
(1998)
(CRYSTAL PALACE STADIUM)
(1998)
F.C.BARCELONA
DRAGONS
(BARCELONA, SPAIN)
(1991-2003)
STADIUM

(MINI ESTADI)
(2002-2003)
SCOTTISH
CLAYMORES
(GLASGOW, SCOTLAND)
(1995-2004)
STADIUM

(HAMPDEN PARK)
(1995-2004)
TEAM HISTORY

Barcelona Dragons played two seasons in the WLAF in the European Division, where they lost to the London Monarchs in World Bowl '91 at Wembley Stadium, London, England.

In 2002, they were renamed FC Barcelona Dragons and then being replaced by the Cologne Centurions.
TITLES
WORLD BOWL TITLES (1): 1997
PLAYOFF APPEARANCES (5)
1991-1992,1997,1999,2001
STADIUMS
ESTADI OLIMPIC
DE MONTJUIC
(BARCELONA, SPAIN)
(1991-1992;1995-2001)
MINI ESTADI
(BARCELONA, SPAIN)
(2002-2003)


Birmingham Fire played two seasons in the WLAF and were chosen because of past support for professional football (WFL Birmingham Americans (1974)/WFL Birmingham Vulcans (1975) and USFL Birmingham Stallions (1985)).

In 1991 and 1992, Fire qualified for the playoffs but lost in the semifinals.
PLAYOFF APPEARANCES (2)
1991-1992
STADIUMS
LEGION FIELD
(BIRMINGHAM, AL)
(1991-1992)


London Monarchs played two seasons in the WLAF and won the very first World Bowl '91 in the first European final beating the Barcelona Dragons. However, 1991 was their only season in which they would appear in the Playoffs.

The Monarchs returned in 1995 until 1997 as that name, in which they left Wembley Stadium and played their home games at home games at Stamford Bridge in London, England. In 1998, they were renamed the England Monarchs and played in three stadiums - Crystal Palace in south London, Ashton Gate in Bristol, and Alexander Stadium in Birmingham.
TITLES
WORLD BOWL TITLES (1): 1991
PLAYOFF APPEARANCES (1)
1991
STADIUMS
WEMBLEY STADIUM
(LONDON, ENGLAND)
(1991-1992;1995-1996)
STAMFORD BRIDGE
(LONDON, ENGLAND)
(1997)
ALEXANDER STADIUM
(BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND)
(1998)
ASHTON GATE STADIUM
(BRISTOL, ENGLAND)
(1998)
CRYSTAL PALACE STADIUM
(LONDON, ENGLAND)
(1998)


Montreal Machine played American Football, rather than Canadian Football, so had 11 players per side on a 100-yard field compared to Canadian Football which has 12 players and a 110-yard field. The Machine did not make the playoffs in their only two seasons but hosted World Bowl '92.

They were the first professional football team to play in the city since the folding of the Montreal Alouettes in 1987, and the first American Football team to play in Canada since Montreal Beavers, Toronto Rifles and Victoria Steelers, which all played in the Continental Football League in 1967. The NFL had hosted two international preseason games in Montreal in 1988 and 1990.

The team averaged 31,888 in their first year and 25,254 in their second but both years were above the league average. The Montreal Alouettes would return in 1996 after the CFL's USA expansion had failed and the Baltimore Stallions had returned to the city.
STADIUMS
OLYMPIC STADIUM
(MONTREAL, CANADA)
(1991-1992)


New York/New Jersey Knights played at Giants Stadium, former home to the New York Giants and New York Jets.

They ended the 1991 season with a 5-5 record and finishing top of the division but losing to the London Monarchs in the semi-final. They finished 1992 with a 6-4 record but did not make the playoffs.

Their name has been resurrected by the British Football League's Caledonian Knights (Glasgow, Scotland).
PLAYOFF APPEARANCES (2)
1991-1992
STADIUMS
GIANTS STADIUM
(EAST RUTHERFORD, NJ)
(1991-1992)


Ohio Glory played only one season in 1992 and were the replacement for the Raleigh-Durham Skyhawks but failed to impress on the field either and finished 1-9. They played at the home of the Ohio State Buckeyes college football team at Ohio Stadium which had a then capacity of 91,470 (now 108,362).
STADIUMS
OHIO STADIUM
(COLUMBUS, OH)
(1992)


Orlando Thunder played to a 5-5 record and 19,000 fans in its first year to an impressive 8-2 and a drop to just over 16,000 per game. 1992 also made them play in World Bowl '92 but losing to the Sacramento Surge 21-17.

In a 2006 ESPN's Uni Watch column, the team's jersey was voted the 2nd worst football jersey of all-time behind the Tampa Bay Buccaneers' 1976-96 uniform. Their name, not colours, was ressurected with the Berlin Thunder for the 1999 season.
PLAYOFF APPEARANCES (1)
1992
STADIUMS
CITRUS BOWL
(ORLANDO, FL)
(1991-1992)


Raleigh-Durham Skyhawks only played one season in the WLAF after finishing 0-10. Their name was inspired by Wright brothers' flights on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. The three jet-trails and three planes in flight, as well as the triangle design in the logo, represented the three points of the Research Triangle area (Raleigh, Durham, and Chapel Hill). The team's cheerleaders were known as the 'Kittyhawks'.

Ohio Glory replaced the Skyhawks in 1992 based in Columbus,OH.
STADIUMS
CARTER-FINLEY STADIUM
(RALEIGH, NC)
(1991)


Sacremento Surge played at Hughes Stadium for their first season and the second season in Hornet Stadium on the Sacramento State University campus. They won World Bowl '92 and the only American team to do so. Following the 1992 season, Managing General Partner Fred Anderson switched the team to join the Canadian Football League and renamed the Sacramento Gold Miners and kept the team's colours of aqua and yellow.
TITLES (1)
WORLD BOWL (1): 1992
PLAYOFF APPEARANCES (1)
1992
STADIUMS
HUGHES STADIUM
(SACRAMENTO, CA)
(1991)
HORNET STADIUM
(SACRAMENTO, CA)
(1991)


San Anotnio Riders played at Alamo Stadium in San Antonio, TX before switching to Bobcat Stadium on the campus of Southwest Texas State University (now Texas State University) in San Marcos, Texas, 45 miles northeast of San Antonio, for the 1992 season after the San Antonio Independent School District refused to allow the sale of beer at WLAF games or the display of beer advertising at Alamo Stadium. The team was owned by Larry Benson, brother of Tom Benson (NFL's New Orleans Saints).

After the 1992 season, which saw the suspension of the WLAF (and ultimately the abandonment of North American teams), Benson applied to the Canadian Football League to have the Riders join that league instead for the 1993 season. The CFL accepted, and admitted the Riders and the Sacramento Surge/Gold Miners to the CFL. The Riders were to change names to the San Antonio Texans (there was already a Rough Riders and a Roughriders, both of whom were known as the "Riders" for short), but the team folded abruptly prior to the 1993 season. The San Antonio Texans name would later be used for the aforementioned Gold Miners when they moved to San Antonio in 1995.
STADIUMS
ALAMO STADIUM
(SAN ANTONIO, TX)
(1991)
BOBCAT STADIUM
(SAN MARCOS, TX)
(1992)


Scottish Claymores joined in 1995 and split its home games between Edinburgh and Glasgow. Their name derives from that of the Claymore, a double-edged sword historically used in Scottish clan warfare. One notable player was Gavin Hastings, a Scottish rugby international who was used as a place kicker in 1996. Their sole World Bowl victory in 1996 was the elague's first worst-to-first turnaround after finishing 1995 with a 2-8 record and no wins at home. In 2033 (Week 1) they beat the Berlin Thunder 62-31 in the highest scoring NFL Europe game and then in 2004 (Week 1) they lost 3-0 to the Amsterdam Admirals to tie the record for the league's lowest scoring game.

Their name has been resurrected by the British Football League and they play in the North Division; a Glasgow-based team Caledonian Knights was added to the BFL in 2019.
TITLES (1)
WORLD BOWL (1): 1996
PLAYOFF APPEARANCES (1)
1996,2000
STADIUMS
MURRAYFIELD
(EDINBURGH, SCOTLAND)
(1995-2000,2002)
HAMPDEN PARK
(GLASGOW, SCOTLAND)
(1998-2004)